MIF or MMIF
A cytokine recently linked to autism is macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). MIF is a pro-inflammatory immune regulator that is constitutively expressed in brain tissues, and has important influences on neural and endocrine systems. This macrophage migration inhibitory factor cytokine is produced by neuroendocrine and immune tissues. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor possesses glucocorticoid-antagonist properties within the immune system and participates in the regulation of several endocrine circuits.
Plasma levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were higher in individuals with autism.
Individuals with autism with the highest levels of plasma MIF were found to have the most severe behavioral symptoms.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is of critical importance for the host response to micro bial infections and in several autoimmune diseases.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor expression is usually constitutive at low levels.